BLADE: How It Works

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 BLADE works in three ways:

1. BLADE reduces emissions of Particulate Material by filtering them from the exhaust stream.   

Particulate Material (or, PM) emissions are composed of unburned or partially burned fuel.    PM emissions vary in size and composition, and they are very hazardous to human health and the environment.

BLADE’s patented bobbin and cartridge technology effectively reduces post-catalytic particulate emission by physically capturing them and removing them the exhaust stream.  This reduces the emission of these particulates into the environment.

2. BLADE reduces emissions and improves fuel economy by decreasing the duration of "cold start" operations. 

The second way that BLADE reduces emissions and improves fuel economy is by decreasing the duration of your vehicles period of “cold start” operations. Cold start is the time between when you start your car’s engine, and the time when your catalytic converter reaches its minimum operating temperature.  Cold start is also the period when your vehicle emits its greatest amount of pollution, and when it consumes higher than normal amounts of fuel. 

Your catalytic converter is like a furnace that sits between your engine and your tailpipe.  Its job is to burn or “oxidize” harmful emissions like hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and, nitrogen oxides into benign emissions like water vapor, carbon dioxide, and elemental nitrogen and oxygen.

In order for your converter to do this however, it needs to be very hot… about 400 degrees C.  So when you start your engine, your converter needs to heat up before it’s able to start working.

Late model cars employ different strategies in order to accelerate the converter’s heating process.  A common srategy is to use additional fuel in order to create a richer (hotter burning) air/fuel mixture.   A richer mixture not only results in an increased amount of emissions being produced by your engine during this period, but it also results in your engine burning excessive amounts of fuel.

Laboratory testing shows that the BLADE decreases cold start operation times by over 20%.  Decreasing cold start times in this manner does three things :  it decreases the amount of harmful emissions that escape from your tailpipe before your converter starts working; it decreases the amount of emissions produced by your engine that result from running a richer-than normal- fuel mixtures,  and it decreases the amount of gas that your car consumes during this process.

How it works

 

3.  BLADE decreases emissions and increases fuel economy by increasing the Volumetric Efficiency (VE) of your engine.

Volumetric efficiency (VE) is defined as amount of air that an engine ingests, relative to its theoretical maximum.

An internal combustion engine can be thought of as an air pumping station: air is pulled in through one end and pushed out the other.  During this process, the air is mixed with fuel and exposed to a spark to create combustion, which in turn generates mechanical power.

An engine's control systems  attempt to maximize the efficiency of combustion by carefully controlling the amount of air and fuel that is mixed together before exposing that mixture to a spark.Combustion is efficient when the mixture in the combustion chamber burns completely.  The more completely it burns, the more energy it releases, and the less pollutive emissions it produces.

In theory, all of the exhaust gas that is produced from combustion is expelled out of the combustion chamber during the exhaust stroke.In practice however, that isn’t what actually happens. When a piston pushes the exhaust gas through the exhaust valve, not all of the exhaust gas gets expelled from chamber, i.e. not all of the gas gets “pumped” out.  As a result, exhaust gas is present inside the chamber during the following intake stroke.

Not only does this residual exhaust gas distort the composition of the new mixture after it enters the chamber, the volume that this gas occupies creates resistance against the mixture that is being “pumped” in. This reduces the “pumping” efficiency of your engine.  This phenomenon is called “pumping loss”, and it is an inherent inefficiency of four-stroke internal combustion engines.

In addition, some of the exhaust gas that is actually expelled out of the chamber during the exhaust stroke slides back through the exhaust valve and into the combustion chamber immediately before the exhaust valve closes. This phenomenon is called “backsliding”; and it is a major cause of the pumping loss.

When combustion occurs, it expels two things from the combustion chamber: 1) a pulse or “wave” of exhaust gas, and 2) a pulse, or “wave” of energy.

A big difference between the “gas wave” and the “energy wave” is that the energy wave travels about 5-times faster than the gas wave—at a rate of approximately 1,500 feet per second.When the energy wave travels through the exhaust system, it encounters obstacles, such as bends in the manifold, or the catalytic converter.  These obstacles cause the energy wave to “bounce” or “revert” backwards in the form of a “reversion wave”.Reversion waves transmit energy back towards the engine.  At supersonic speeds, it doesn’t take long for a reversion wave to reach the engine’s exhaust valve, which is still in the process of releasing the much slower-traveling wave of exhaust gas.  When a wave of reverted energy encounters the gas wave, the more energy intensive reversion wave forces pressure upon it—pushing, or “backsliding” some of its gas back into the combustion chamber.  And this is how reversion waves create backsliding!  And backsliding is a major cause of pumping loss.

In the presence of pumping loss of backsliding, instead of having only clean air and fuel in the combustion chamber, you now have: clean air and fuel, plus dirty exhaust gas.  This means that combustion is actually occurring at a CLEAN air/fuel ratio of less than 14.7/1, and this is inefficient. Remember that Volumetric Efficiency is the amount of air that an engine ingests relative to its theoretical maximum.

In practice, “The amount of air that an engine ingests” can be described as the actual amount of good, clean air, plus the dirty exhaust gas that remains inside the chamber.  The “theoretical maximum” describes the potential of having exactly the right amount of air in the chamber—a ratio of 14.7/1—and that all of that air is CLEAN air.

Therefore, the closer you are to the “theoretical maximum”, the greater amount of volumetric efficiency you achieve. When you increase volumetric efficiently, you increase the efficiency of internal combustion.  And when you increase the efficiency internal combustion, you get better fuel economy and less pollutive emissions.

BLADE increases volumetric efficiency by reducing pumping loss and backsliding.